Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Complex Ions and Precipitation Reactions

Among the most common reactions in the qualitative analysis are those involving the formation or decomposition of complex ions and precipitation reactions. These reactions may be performed directly by adding the appropriate anion, or a reagent such as H2S or NH3 may dissociate in water to furnish the anion. Strong acid may be used to dissolve precipitates containing a basic anion. Ammonia or sodium hydroxide may be used to bring a solid into solution if the cation in the precipitate forms a stable complex with NH3 or OH-. A cation is usually present as a single principal species, which may be a complex ion, free ion, or precipitate. If the reaction goes to completion the principal species is a complex ion. The precipitate is the principal species if most of the precipitate remains undissolved. If a cation forms a stable complex, the addition of a complexing agent at 1 M or greater generally will convert the free ion to complex ion. The dissociation constant Kd can be used to determine the extent to which a cation is converted to a complex ion. The solubility product constant Ksp can be used to determine the fraction of cation remaining in a solution after precipitation. Kd and Ksp are both required to calculate the equilibrium constant for dissolving a precipitate in a complexing agent. Complexes of Cations with NH3 and OH- Cation NH3 Complex OH- Complex Ag+ Ag(NH3)2+ -- Al3+ -- Al(OH)4- Cd2+ Cd(NH3)42+ -- Cu2+ Cu(NH3)42+ (blue) -- Ni2+ Ni(NH3)62+ (blue) -- Pb2+ -- Pb(OH)3- Sb3+ -- Sb(OH)4- Sn4+ -- Sn(OH)62- Zn2+ Zn(NH3)42+ Zn(OH)42-

Friday, May 15, 2020

Relationship Between Children And Charlie s Sobriety Essay

After listening to their personal stories about the past, Charlie and Jenita began to discuss their concerns about their relationship, the children and Charlie’s sobriety. Considering Jenita felt the sobriety was affecting their relationship as a couple and as a family, the opportunity was given to her first to explain why she felt that way. She explained since they got back together, Charlie was outgoing, animated, engaging and fun. Not only did he plan dates with her, but he made sure they did family outings with the kids as well. It was also important for him to spend one-on-one time with their eldest daughter also. However, once the doctor highly advised him to stop drinking that is when she noticed he started changing. While Jenita shared her thoughts and feelings, her body language shifted again. At this point, she was sitting at the edge of the couch and her right foot started to shake. She then continued to share that Charlie is a different person and it is starting to scare her. She feels Charlie is getting depressed and she does not know how to be in a relationship with someone who is feeling this way. Jenita also expressed that Charlie has slowly isolated himself from friends/extended family, and claims to be tired all the time. She continue to share that he has lost interest in the family outings and their romantic dates including having a sex life. At first she thought it was the effects of the alcohol, leaving his system, but since it’s been six months from

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Pleasure Of Good Poetry Essay - 2201 Words

The pleasure of good poetry about the pain of love William Shakespeare is one of the most valued and inspirational poets, not only in the English speaking world but world wide. For example, his work influenced strongly Johan Wolfgang von Goethe, one of Germany’s most famous poets, and important figure in the Enlightenment movement in Germany. â€Å"Romanticism was driven by the ‘Sturm und Drang’ (Storm and Stress) movement, exemplified [†¦]in the earlier writings of Goethe.† During the Romanticism William Wordsworth wrote essays about the essence of good poetry. In this essay I will argue how Wordsworth’s essence is found in both Shakespeare’s and Goethe’s work, and how this relates to why Goethe’s poetry should be included in The Norton Anthology of Poetry. For the argument I chose Shakespeare’s â€Å"Sonnet 33†, Wordsworth’s â€Å"Preface to Lyrical Ballads†, and Goethe’s â€Å"Welcome and Farewell†. In his essay â€Å"Preface to the Lyrical Ballad† Wordsworth claims that â€Å"good poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings† and that it is the purpose of poetry â€Å"to illustrate the manners in which our feelings and ideas are associated in a state of excitement† and to give pleasure. Thereby he stresses the importance of emotions, and continues by saying that the feelings during an experience give the experience importance, not vice versa. Thus he prioritises feelings over reason, which is typical for the Romanticism. This is very important as pleasure is the only reason why we canShow MoreRelatedAristotle s Views Of Poetry Essay1671 Words   |  7 PagesSocratic moral philosophy is important in poetry because it engages poets in rational thinking when making poems. Poetry is mostly communicated through written texts; it can be used to expand one’s knowledge of himself or herself and the world. However, philosophers disparage poetry by its composition and senses such as imitation, representation, fiction, and expression. On this note, Socrates used philosophical explorations to criticize the role of poetry in the world. Many poets engage in imitationRead MoreThe Theory Of Utilitarianism By Jeremy Bentham And John Stewart Mill903 Words   |  4 Pagesmoral principle, the principle of utility. Bentham’s principle of utility is stated in chapter one of â€Å"Principles of Morals and Legislation†, â€Å"By utility is meant that property in any object, whereby it tends to produce benefit, advantage, pleasure, good, or happiness, (all this in the present case comes to the same thing) or (what comes again to the same thing to prevent the happening of mischief, pain, evil, or unhappiness to the party whose interest is considered† Which in short just meansRead MoreLoving Un Truth, and Fain in Verse My Love to Show1407 Words   |  6 Pagespresents the dual theme of how to write good poetry and how to win the favour of a beloved. The poet even implies the question whether it is possible to a good poem aiming at winning the beloved. At the very beginning of the sonnet Sidney makes it clear that he writes the sonnet in order to win Stella. Here he employs the simplest means—which any lover does, namely, the pain-pleasure-knowledge-pity-love method: â€Å"†¦ she might take some pleasure of my pain; Pleasure might cause her read, reading might  makeRead MoreThe Effects Of Poetry On His Noble State1412 Words   |  6 PagesThroughout Republic, Socrates discusses elements that comprise his ideal city. More specifically, in Republic X, Socrates examines the impact of poetry on his noble state. Coming from a negative standpoint, Socrates says that poetry is detrimental to the city for two reasons: one is that, â€Å"[poetry] arouses, nourishes, and strengthens this [inferior] part of the soul and so destroys the rational one†¦Ã¢â‚¬ , and the other, â€Å"an imitative poet puts a bad constitution in the soul of each individual by makingRead MoreCriticism Of Utilitarianism By John Stuart Mill895 Words   |  4 Pagesphilosopher and strong advocate of the moral theory, utilitarianism. Utilitarianism centers on the idea that whether actions are morally right or wrong depends on their outcomes. Significantly, â€Å"the only effects of actions that are relevant are the good a nd bad results that they produce† (Nathanson). But this has led to many interpretations of utilitarianism and to challenges and criticisms it has receive over the centuries. Such opponents not only included other moral theorist, but supporters ofRead MoreAnalysis Of May Swensons Poem The Centaur1723 Words   |  7 Pagesmake the reader feel a certain emotion, or even to share a distinct memory with their reader. Poetry has helped authors focus their readers on their work by achieving themes that may portrayed in several pieces of their work. In May Swenson’s case, she used a variety of techniques to create different emotions for the reader, while expressing certain periods of her life. May Swenson uses nature in her poetry to personify sexuality and make it into a repetitive theme in her work. Many of Swenson’s criticsRead MorePoetry Is Not Just The Vision Of The Writer1036 Words   |  5 PagesPoetry exists at a junction between language and state of mind. P oetry is not just the vision of the writer put to a page, meant to evoke and inspire readers. Poetry is thoughts concealed given breath—a story reflecting the interior landscape of the mind. Just as it can be a breath of air, poetry can grip the heart—the mind can be an awfully dark place. Within gothic poetry the horror and fears of the poet lie just beyond the words of the poem itself. The words are emotional viscera given form.Read MoreEssay about William Wordsworth1193 Words   |  5 PagesApril 7, 1770, at Cockermouth in Cumberland, England. His poetry, and especially his poems on solitude, must have been heavily influenced by the death of his mother and the splitting up of his family when he was only eight (Kilvert 1). At that time, fate sent him to live in Hawkshead, England, where his teacher started him writing poetry. Wordsworth got his higher education at Cambridge, his memories of which play a part in his later poetry (Noyes 201). Fate again stepped in wh en, as a young man,Read MoreWhen Death Dies Where Does Death Go1181 Words   |  5 PagesWhen death dies where does death go. Good morning fellow poetry lovers I am Julian Nylen and I flattered to have this opportunity to share my iinterpitation of poetry. today I will be analaysing how the famous metaphysical poet, john donne has used poetic techniques and devices to develop multiple themes for his poem, death be not proud. The themes I believe he has developed are; That death should not be proud, Death is a transitional stage, and the belief that the eternal kingdom lies beyond Read More How does William Wordsworths poetry fit into the literary tradition1055 Words   |  5 PagesWilliam Wordsworths poetry fit into the literary tradition of Romanticism? Q. How does William Wordsworths poetry fit into the literary tradition of Romanticism? A. Romantic poetry was an artistic movement of the late 18th and early 19th century. It dealt with nature, human imagination, childhood and the ability to recall emotional memories of both happiness and sadness. Before Wordsworth began writing his revolutionary new style of poetry, all preceding poetry had a very different

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Principles of Employee Relationships Fair Work Commission

Question: Discuss about the Principles of Employee Relationshipsfor Fair Work Commission. Answer: Introduction Employee relations are now one of the most discussed topics in any organization. Researchers have shown that the companies having a healthy relation with their employees are most successful. Satisfied employees are also productive employees. New strategies are implemented on regular basis to improve the employee relations. This report deals with understanding the principles of employee relations. It also illustrates the working of Fair Work Commission of Australia, the challenges confronted by them and their response to these challenges. Principles of Employee Relations The relationship between an employee and its employer is referred to as Employee Relations. Previously it was referred to as Industrial Relations. It mainly dealt with solving the issues raised between and employee and an employer. At present, the term has been replaced from Employee Relations or Workplace Relations (Robbins, Ford Tetrick, 2012). In addition to solving conflicts, recruitment of employee, training, and development, providing equal opportunities to all employees, upgrading the organizational structure all fall under this category. The main principle of employee relationship is to consider an employee as an asset rather than expenditure to the company (Rodriguez Mearns, 2012). Employees should always be provided with a transparent environment where they can freely present their views and opinions without any fear. By developing proper policies the conflict between the various levels of the workplace should be minimized. To maintain a good relationship with employees t here should be strategies to reward and recognize their hard work (Aguinis Glavas, 2012). Recognition boosts the confidence of employees. They feel more attached to the company operations and are less prone to leave. This increases sustainability in the organization. There are certain main principles of employee relations. Treating an employee with dignity and respect, constructively criticizing an employee are some of the major points. Blaming only demotivates the employees (Bach, 2012). Employees of all levels should be considered as vital for the organizations operations. It should be kept in mind that all employees, be it from the grass root level or the topmost executives are responsible for increasing the productivity of the business. An employee should be properly trained. The individual should also be clearly informed about his/her role in the organization. It is considered as the failure of management if an employee fails to perform (Rybalko Seltzer, 2010). Proper feedback of how the employee is contributing to the growth of the company should be provided from t ime to time. This acts as a great motivation for the employees. Employees should be given proper information about the current condition and the future goals of the organization. There should be a process of transparent communication between employees and their supervisors (Kaufman, 2010). Rewarding boasts an employees self-esteem (Kelly, 2012). Mutual understanding and helping each other improves the inter-personnel bond and develops a good work culture. Creating a fun and pleasant work environment improves the concentration of employees (Knight Haslam, 2010). Employee relations not only deal with the well-being of employees but it also the way in which a business maximizes its profit through proper utilization of these principles. Determining proper wages for employees is an important part in linking business with employee relations. A very high salary to a nonperforming employee only increases the expenses. On the other hand, a very low salary de-motivates the employee (Kruse, Freeman Blasi, 2010). Customer satisfaction is directly related to staff satisfaction. Staff satisfaction determines how they treat their customers. A healthy wok culture increases the satisfaction of work among employees, thus increasing customer satisfaction (Miceli, Rehg Van Scotter, 2012). Maintaining ethics in business is very important for employee relations (Ferner, Edwards Tempel, 2012). Employees can easily recognize how much honest an organization is towards their well being. As a result, when a company faces a critical situation, employees willingly c ome forward for helping the business by temporarily cutting down their wages and can even work with no pay. Allowing flexible working hours to employees helps them to fulfil family responsibilities. This reduces tension in individuals and helps to work more productively for the company (Rybalko Seltzer, 2010). The Work of a Fair Work Commission The Fair Work Commission of Australia is an independent tribunal looking after the national workplace relations. It looks after the safety and security of individuals in the workplace. It ensures that employees are entitled to fair wages. It also has the right to decide what a minimum salary for an employee should be depending on its work responsibilities. It deals with complaints of unfair dismissal of employees from the workplace (Welch, 2012). The commission has every right to investigate and decide on the issue. It also regulates the actions taken by industries towards the employees. It resolves a number of conflicts between an employee and its employer through mediating and sometimes arranging for public hearings. Equal remuneration is also an area of concern for the commission (Fair Work Commission, 2017). A commission can take actions according to the nature of the application received. It can refer an issue to a mediator of the company if the issue is not so big. This helps t he issue to be solved informally without making a topic of discussion among people. It develops strategies on how an application is to be dealt with. Solving an issue sometimes requires the concerned people to appear before the commission. It conducts conferences, investigates and collects evidence, holds hearings before giving judgment on the issue to be solved (Fair Work Commission, 2017). The commission takes a verbal or written commitment from both parties to abide by its decision on the issue. One of the basic principles of the commission is to hold fair hearings, allowing both the parties to present their point of view equally by not favoring any of the sides. Their main aim is to solve the issue as quickly as possible by holding fair and transparent hearings and avoiding unnecessary formalities. Their judgment is always focused on promoting a harmonious and co-operative workplace (Fair Work Commission, 2017). While solving an issue, the commission takes into account each and every person and every situation involved in the act. It also considers the good side or the merits of the act performed. The commission gives a great importance in promoting a healthy work culture by preventing discrimination on the basis of race, colour, sex, social origin, marital status, pregnancy, age, religion. These are both mental and physical disabilities and so on (Fair Work Commission, 2017). The members of this commission follow a certain mode of conduct. The main ethic they follow is impartiality to any of the parties. If any of the parties or a third party observer complaints about a members being partial to any of the parties, the membership of that concerned individual can be cancelled forever. The commission encourages conciliation over public hearing (Daley, 2012). Whenever an issue is registered with them, their first step is to come up with ways by which the issue can be solved informally. Generally, they appoint a senior executive of the company to resolve issues between themselves and thus prevent employee termination. This conciliation procedure takes place through telephonic conferences. These conferences are approximately of 90 minutes. The commission takes facts into consideration only when a statement from any of the parties is well established with immense evidence (Fair Work Commission, 2017). They follow different procedures for gathering information. These include requiring a person to attend commission, requiring a person to provide relevant documents and evidence to justify their statement, requiring making spoken or written submissions and requiring the person to take an oath (Fair Work Commission, 2017). The commission can dismiss applications on various grounds. When the application is not made in accordance with the act or it has no serious issue to be looked into, the application can be cancelled. Even when the commission finds that there is no possibility of resolution of the issue they can cancel the complaint registered. Applications also get cancelled for various reasons after the hearing starts. If any of the parties fail to attend a hearing for unimportant reasons, does not follow with the commission's decision or discontinues after the solution is reached, the commission has every right to dismiss the application (Fair Work Commission, 2017). At the end of the proceedings, the commission decides on the concerned issue and is then published on the commissions website. Depending on the nature of the case the commission can also pass orders. Decisions and orders can also be passed in the middle of the hearings depending on the seriousness of the situation (Fair Work Commission, 2017). The Fair Work act 2009 states that all modern awards should contain a clause detailing the procedure for dispute resolution between the employee and the employer, arising under the National Employment Standards or the agreement. According to the FW act employees should be very well informed about dispute resolution laws practiced by their organization (Stahl et al. 2012). Employees should be well aware of the actions taken at each level of the organization to resolve their issues. At the first stage, an employee generally comes up with their grievances to their immediate supervisor or manager. Failing to resolve, their issues are transferred to the more senior management of the company. If the issue still remains unresolved then the parties jointly or individually contact Fair Work Commission. Enterprise agreements which do not contain dispute resolution clause are considered as invalid by Fair Work Commission (Fair Work Commission, 2017). Difference of FWC from Earlier Tribunals Before the birth of Fair Work Commission Australian, industrial relations did not consider employment relationship as a vital area of business development. State compulsory arbitration had a centralising affect on unions and the employers. As a result bargaining at workplace was only an impossible dream for employees. Emergence of FWC has changed this scenario. Both employees and employers can now bargain on the correct wages an individual can receive depending on his abilities and responsibilities in the organization. Earlier people were afraid to complain because the mechanism of resolving issues was under developed. Both the parties had to depend on external influences for resolving disputes. FWC now gives immense stress on the development of a transparent work culture. As a result, employees are now more aware of their rights and privileges and are more flexible in stating their complaints. This ensures that maximum issues are resolved within the organization. In earlier times em ployees were only treated as workers who are bound to do as ordered from the higher levels of management. They did not have any right to present their opinions. Employees never had the feeling that they were wanted in the organization (Fair Work Commission, 2017). Hence, people were less motivated and less productive. FWC has made a huge change in this work culture. It states that developing a transparent communication system between both employee and its employer results in increased productivity. When issues and ideas of employees are heard with positive criticism, they feel valued which brings out their creative best. Challenges Faced by Fair Work Commission at Present and the Responses The vital challenge faced by Fair Work commission, in recent times, is resolving workplace dispute cases. Disputes at workplaces may arise due to various reasons Williams Adam-Smith, 2010). Disputes arise when employees are denied their basic rights and obligations. Companies, which do not maintain proper policies on the well-being of employees, face disputes. Wrong treatment of employees from the senior management or co-workers, partiality in employee treatment is some of the important reasons behind the disputes. Altering the work environment without consultation and not having or ignoring proper dispute resolution techniques can encourage more trouble. Dealing with these workplace issues at an early stage resolves the matter completely and improves the employee employer relationship. When the employees are ensured that their grievances will be looked after with utmost importance, they will be more co-operative and productive in their operations (Fair Work Commission, 2017). The Case of Ms. SB' In June 2013 a case was registered by a Delivery Support Leader, that she has been bullied by two of her subordinates because they were not happy with the restructure. The leader complained about spreading malicious rumours against her and harassing her on a regular basis. There were also complaints of negative comments made by the subordinates for bullying. Complaints were also filed against the employer, stating that they did not support her as a manager while investigating the complaints. She also stated that proper action was not taken even after finding the truth. FWC found these allegations inappropriate and rejected her claim. No evidence of the subordinates making negative comments against her and undermining her by making false accusations was found. Though it was found that she was criticized in the workplace but the source of criticism was not found. Complaints against the employer were also rubbished since it was found that the company conducted investigations against the subordinates based on her complaints. The employer had fully supported the leader through employee assistance programs. Future of Fair Work Commission The commission has started a program called Future Directions, where they set out future initiatives for improving employee relations. The main target of the program is to continuously upgrade strategies on employee relations. Employees are always ignorant of the procedures they can follow when their grievances are kept unheard within the organization. Fair Work Commission is continuously working to improve this scenario. It sets out directions stating that all employees of organizations should be well informed about the hierarchy of grievance handling within and outside the business. This will help the employees to get fair access to justice. It also looks after increasing accountability. Inventing new engagement strategies encouraging innovation, timeliness, and productivity of employees through harmonious and co-operative workplace relations is also one of its main agendas. These initiatives are taken through consultation with commission members, staff, and key stakeholders. The i nitiatives taken are flexible enough to meet the needs of the changing Australian community (Fair Work Commission, 2017). Changes will also be seen in the working area of Fair Work Commission. A full bench of the Fair Work Commission has arrived at a significant decision stating that FWC does not have jurisdiction to declare rights that are already present in the Fair Work Act. As a result, the power of FWC will be reduced in disputes about the right of entry under section 505. People seeking declaration now have to proceed with the Federal court (Fair Work Commission, 2017). Conclusion All organizations can benefit by maintaining good relations with their employees. Building a safe, healthy and discrimination-free work environment is the main criterion for a good employee-employer bond. Giving employees a transparent system of communication can make the bond stronger. When employees are listened without criticism, their confidence in the company gets stronger. Hence they get more committed to their work which brings the best out of them and increases the productivity of the business. It can be concluded saying that employees are the biggest assets for the success of any organization. Hence maintaining a trusted relation with employees is the key to success. References Aguinis, H., Glavas, A. (2012). What we know and dont know about corporate social responsibility a review and research agenda.Journal of management,38(4), 932-968 Bach, S. (2012). Shrinking the state or the Big Society? Public service employment relations in an era of austerity.Industrial Relations Journal,43(5), 399-415 Daley, D. M. (2012). Strategic human resource management.Public Personnel Management, 120-125 Fair Work Commission. (2017). Fair Work Commission | Australia's national workplace relations tribunal. [online] Available at: https://www.fwc.gov.au/ [Accessed on 14 Apr. 2017] Ferner, A., Edwards, T., Tempel, A. (2012). Power, institutions and the cross-national transfer of employment practices in multinationals.Human Relations,65(2), 163-187 Kaufman, B. E. (2010). The theoretical foundation of industrial relations and its implications for labor economics and human resource management.ILR Review,64(1), 74-108 Kelly, J. (2012).Rethinking industrial relations: Mobilisation, collectivism and long waves. Routledge Knight, C., Haslam, S. A. (2010). The relative merits of lean, enriched, and empowered offices: an experimental examination of the impact of workspace management strategies on well-being and productivity.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied,16(2), 158 Kruse, D. L., Freeman, R. B., Blasi, J. R. (Eds.). (2010).Shared capitalism at work: Employee ownership, profit and gain sharing, and broad-based stock options. University of Chicago Press Miceli, M. P., Near, J. P., Rehg, M. T., Van Scotter, J. R. (2012). Predicting employee reactions to perceived organizational wrongdoing: Demoralization, justice, proactive personality, and whistle-blowing.Human Relations,65(8), 923-954 Robbins, J. M., Ford, M. T., Tetrick, L. E. (2012). Perceived unfairness and employee health: a meta-analytic integration.Journal of Applied Psychology,97(2), 235 Rodriguez, J. K., Mearns, L. (2012). Problematising the interplay between employment relations, migration and mobility.Employee Relations,34(6), 580-593 Rybalko, S., Seltzer, T. (2010). Dialogic communication in 140 characters or less: How Fortune 500 companies engage stakeholders using Twitter.Public relations review,36(4), 336-341 Stahl, G., Bjrkman, I., Farndale, E., Morris, S. S., Paauwe, J., Stiles, P., ... Wright, P. (2012). Six principles of effective global talent management.Sloan Management Review,53(2), 25-42 Welch, M. (2012). Appropriateness and acceptability: Employee perspectives of internal communication.Public Relations Review,38(2), 246-254 Williams, S., Adam-Smith, D. (2010).Contemporary employment relations: a critical introduction. Oxford University Press

Monday, April 13, 2020

Book Review Essay Example Essay Example

Book Review Essay Example Paper Book Review Essay Introduction The book â€Å"The Foreigner’s Gift: the Americans, the Arabs and the Iraqis in Iraq† by Fouad Ajami provides detailed overview of the events taken place in the mentioned countries as well as the author offers his unique vision of those events. The author is rather persuasive, because he uses logical arguments, conclusions, facts and viewpoints of different critics to defend his position. It is necessary to outline that findings presented in the book significantly contribute the evidence that events in America, Iraq and Arab countries are rather contradictive and disputable.The issues raised in the book are a matter of concern of many other writers, historians and politicians. The author is rather concerned with war in Iraq defining it as â€Å"an orphan in the court of public opinion†. (Ajami 2006) The author thinks that such definition is precisely characterizes the fact that â€Å"these days even some of those who had campaigned in favor of the war now sound apologetic or even critical†. (Ajami 2006)According to Ajami, the war in Iraq ensured support of more than 70% of Americans and thus caused rather enthusiastic endorsement in the US Congress and media. Nevertheless, nowadays situation has dramatically changed and support decreased to 30%. The author argues that it is difficult to say whether the war may be considered just and necessary. Furthermore, Ajami asserts that to achieve the understanding one should use the help of â€Å"detailed arguments based on facts and backed by his deep understanding of the complex politics of the Middle East†. (Ajami 2006)Therefore, the book is surely a deconstruction and critique of cultural, political and military war in Iraq initiated by Sunni Arabs and the author strongly objects to political rise of Shia. He says: â€Å"An old order of dominion and primacy was shattered in Iraq. The rage against this American war, in Iraq itself and in the wider Arab world, was the anger of a cultu re that America had given power to the Shia stepchildren of the Arab world – and to the Kurds†. (Ajami 2006)The author assumes that the opposition of Arab countries to Shia has changed even the American policy meaning that Bush’s policy has been changed due to â€Å"bureaucratic infighting† in his administration: â€Å"There are reports, exaggerated by the telling, that Iranian charities and political-religious operatives from the larger Persian state next door are running away with Iraq, that they will recast it in their image, that they are training Shia activists in media and political work designed to impose an edifice of power akin to Iran’s†. (Ajami 2006)Despite the fact that the author is of Arab origin and at the same time he is an American academic, he takes into account both sides of the issues providing thus relevant comparison and contrasting of American and Arab actions. It is mentioned in the book that American population worrie s about the cruelty and violence initiated by Iraqis and American understand that it is exploited for partisan purposes in the country. Further, Ajami assumes that Iraqis are also displeased when seeing foreign troops in their country and even more displeased when hearing that liberation and democracy should be introduced without asking them. Therefore, the author admits that â€Å"it would take a long time for it to come to the surface†. (Ajami 2006)Ajami mentions in the book that he has been to Iraq many times during war and thus he has been provided with opportunity to interview key figures in political life of the country. According to the title of the book, it is apparent that the author considers fall of Iraqi’s leader Saddam Hussein as a gift for the rest of the world, especially for the USA and its allies. Ajami notices that â€Å"it would have been better had the Iraqis liberated themselves†. (Ajami 2006) Nevertheless, he realizes that it is hardly poss ible in the near future as the severe regime in the country destroyed the whole native population.After reading the book, two important points appear to be clearly set:1. The first point is that regime has changed in Baghdad meaning that the Iraq Project has achieved its ultimate objectives. Apparently, the first seeds of democratization process are planted in the country.2. The second point is that change of regime in Baghdad has initiated democratic ideas in many Arab countries. Therefore, the author asserts that â€Å"these genies will not return to the bottle and that, given time and American tenacity, will be able to reshape the Middle East†. (Ajami 2006)Speaking further, it is necessary to sum up that â€Å"The Foreigner’s Gift† isn’t a dry academic study due to its colorful expression, combination of poetic and prose style of narration and shrewd author’s eye of a reporter. For example, Ajami writes that â€Å"the type of carpets that furni sh Grand Ayatollah Sistani’s modest home in Najaf†. (Ajami 2006) Therefore, Ajami has true talent of story telling and the book appears to be easily readable and enjoyable for general interested reader. The book certainly contains original and new information about the Iraqi population. For example, the author admits that nowadays many of the Iraqis begin to realize that it is their duty to fight their newly won freedom and, thus, they are obliged to build new democratic system eliminating the old regime. Ajami notes that the desire for more freedom and liberty is spreading among other Arab countries initiating new struggles between, for example, Iraq and its Ba’athist and Islamist enemies. Therefore, Ajami hopes the democracy is the future of Arab nations. Proponents of new Iraq have the right to dream about the different future. (Ajami 2006)The next moment to mention is that the book is filled with lots of information that reveal the reality of Iraq involving c ar bombs, suicide attacks and other issues. The author writes, for example, about the increased number of pilgrims stating that they generated the real estate boom in many cities. The number of pilgrims is estimated at about four million people per year. The author also presents the role of translators and interpreters in misleading foreigners who come to Iraq. Surprisingly, it is found out in the book that both Nuri Said and General Abdul-Karim Kassem â€Å"have achieved a new measure of popularity among those Iraqis desperately seeking for a nostalgic wall against which to lean in these times of uncertainty†. (Ajami 2006)Ajami thoroughly examines the attitude of the Arab media towards the agenda of new Iraq. However, the author appears to be highly critical of Qatari Al Jazeera television and the Egyptian press, whereas he is rather satisfied with the releases of Asharq Alawsat and its former editor-in-chief and star columnist Abdul-Rahman Al-Rashed. Special attention in th e book is paid to the complexities of Shi’ism in Iraq. The author provides detailed description of late Muhammad Baqer Sadr stating that he is a real philosopher, though the definition is too exaggerated. The author also assumes that it was Saddam who ordered Sadr’s execution and it is Ruhollah Khomeini who should share the blame. (Ajami 2006)It is necessary t note that book deals with the policies â€Å"pursued by Arab governments vis-à  -vis recent changes in Iraq† as well. (Ajami 2006) For example, the author strongly criticizes both President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt and King Abdullah II of Jordan assuming that they are going to undermine and to destroy the new regime in Iraq. That is the main reason why the media in Egypt and in Jordan is very hostile and too government-controlled. However, the author provides little supporting evidence to prove the fact that Amman or Cairo is willing to encourage the insurgency in Iraq.â€Å"The Foreigner’s Giftâ₠¬  provides position of Lebanese Shi’ite community towards the new regime in Iraq. Apparently, the majority of the population is really happy to realize that Saddam’s regime is over, because he has persecuting fellow Shi’ites for several decades. However, two leading organizations in Lebanese’s Shi’ite community’s claim that new regime in Iraq is just an American contraption. The author admits that both organizations are the proponents of former Ba’atists and pro- Al Qaeda groups. The author strongly objects to Muhammad Hussein Fadhlallah, because he is spiritual leader of the Lebanese Hezballah. Fadhlallah criticizes new regime in Iraq and, thus, the author opposes his ideas and thoughts. (Ajami 2006)Ajami provides positive feedback towards Wolfowitz and really admires his personality and his intellectual qualities; whereas a person received the most praise in â€Å"The Foreigner’s Gift† is Ahmad Chalabi. The author sa ys that Ahmad Chalabi is the natural successor to Saddam, because he has done a lot to ask the USA for help and intervention in Iraq. Nevertheless, after liberation has come to Iraq, Ahmad Chalabi is accused of selling secrets to Iran. However, in such a way the author denigrates other leading political figures of Iraq and he simply enhance Chalabi’s reputation. Ajami states that if to listen to the head of the largest Shiite party in Iraq, it is possible to reveal â€Å"a Persian cadence† in his intonations. Further, Ajami states that Iran’s influence on Iraq’s policy is exaggerated. (Ajami 2006)Despite many shortcomings and dark spots, the author claims that new leadership of Iraq is able to provide improvements compared with the Ba’athist ancient regime. Nowadays, according to the author, Iraq is â€Å"affected by the toxic fumes of partisan politics† and, thus, the book is a breath of fresh air. (Ajami 2006) â€Å"The Foreigner’s Gift† is a rich textured study of post-invasion Iraq providing morality of the American mission. However, the book appears highly romantic in portraying American soldiers, religious and political dynamics, Iraqi ethnic and the possibilities for ultimate success. The book is an attempt to persuade people that the occupation and war could not have been handled better. Book Review Essay Thank you for reading this Sample!

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Bipolar Disorder Essays - Psychiatric Diagnosis, Depression

Bipolar Disorder Essays - Psychiatric Diagnosis, Depression Bipolar Disorder Psyc 103 Fall 95 The phenomenon of bipolar affective disorder has been a mystery since the 16th century. History has shown that this affliction can appear in almost anyone. Even the great painter Vincent Van Gogh is believed to have had bipolar disorder. It is clear that in our society many people live with bipolar disorder; however, despite the abundance of people suffering from the it, we are still waiting for definite explanations for the causes and cure. The one fact of which we are painfully aware is that bipolar disorder severely undermines its? victims ability to obtain and maintain social and occupational success. Because bipolar disorder has such debilitating symptoms, it is imperative that we remain vigilant in the quest for explanations of its causes and treatment. Affective disorders are characterized by a smorgasbord of symptoms that can be broken into manic and depressive episodes. The depressive episodes are characterized by intense feelings of sadness and despair that can become feelings of hopelessness and helplessness. Some of the symptoms of a depressive episode include anhedonia, disturbances in sleep and appetite, psycomoter retardation, loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness, guilt, difficulty thinking, indecision, and recurrent thoughts of death and suicide (Hollandsworth, Jr. 1990 ). The manic episodes are characterized by elevated or irritable mood, increased energy, decreased need for sleep, poor judgment and insight, and often reckless or irresponsible behavior (Hollandsworth, Jr. 1990 ). Bipolar affective disorder affects approximately one percent of the population (approximately three million people) in the United States. It is presented by both males and females. Bipolar disorder involves episodes of mania and depression. These episodes may alternate with profound depressions characterized by a pervasive sadness, almost inability to move, hopelessness, and disturbances in appetite, sleep, in concentrations and driving. Bipolar disorder is diagnosed if an episode of mania occurs whether depression has been diagnosed or not (Goodwin, Guze, 1989, p 11). Most commonly, individuals with manic episodes experience a period of depression. Symptoms include elated, expansive, or irritable mood, hyperactivity, pressure of speech, flight of ideas, inflated self esteem, decreased need for sleep, distractibility, and excessive involvement in reckless activities (Hollandsworth, Jr. 1990 ). Rarest symptoms were periods of loss of all interest and retardation or agitation (Weisman, 1991). As the National Depressive and Manic Depressive Association (MDMDA) has demonstrated, bipolar disorder can create substantial developmental delays, marital and family disruptions, occupational setbacks, and financial disasters. This devastating disease causes disruptions of families, loss of jobs and millions of dollars in cost to society. Many times bipolar patients report that the depressions are longer and increase in frequency as the individual ages. Many times bipolar states and psychotic states are misdiagnosed as schizophrenia. Speech patterns help distinguish between the two disorders (Lish, 1994). The onset of Bipolar disorder usually occurs between the ages of 20 and 30 years of age, with a second peak in the mid-forties for women. A typical bipolar patient may experience eight to ten episodes in their lifetime. However, those who have rapid cycling may experience more episodes of mania and depression that succeed each other without a period of remission (DSM III-R). The three stages of mania begin with hypomania, in which patients report that they are energetic, extroverted and assertive (Hirschfeld, 1995). The hypomania state has led observers to feel that bipolar patients are "addicted" to their mania. Hypomania progresses into mania and the transition is marked by loss of judgment (Hirschfeld, 1995). Often, euphoric grandiose characteristics are displayed, and paranoid or irritable characteristics begin to manifest. The third stage of mania is evident when the patient experiences delusions with often paranoid themes. Speech is generally rapid and hyperactive behavior manifests sometimes associated with violence (Hirschfeld, 1995). When both manic and depressive symptoms occur at the same time it is called a mixed episode. Those afflicted are a special risk because there is a combination of hopelessness, agitation, and anxiety that makes them feel like they "could jump out of their skin"(Hirschfeld, 1995). Up to 50% of all patients with mania have a mixture of depressed moods. Patients report feeling dysphoric, depressed, and unhappy; yet, they exhibit the energy associated with mania. Rapid cycling mania is another presentation of bipolar disorder. Mania may be present with four

Monday, February 24, 2020

No child left behind act Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

No child left behind act - Essay Example The report states the alarming statistics of how competing15 year old international students were better at math then the Americans’ by of scoring lower than peers among pupils from other industrialized countries. Despite the staggering numbers, and the drop rates of 7000 school children on daily basis, the NCLB refuses to step back. It held public hearings cross the country, these talks taking the commission from Atlanta, Connecticut, Wisconsin, California, Hartford, to Madison, Georgia, Massachusetts and even Cambridge. 46 individuals from state policy makers to teachers, parents, officials and even advocates testified on behalf of thousands of people, reflecting on how the law has affected numerous lives. As Nathaniel Branden says, â€Å"The first step toward change is awareness. The second step is acceptance†. As if this isn’t enough evidence for the constantly functioning system, the collection of more than 10000 comments via its website reflects how citizen s are enthusiastic and aware of the reform being taken. Darling Hammond’s essay published in 2007 states the rather bitter sweet side of the NCLB reform, backing her arguments by yet another set of alarming statistics about the American education over the years. ... ccording to Darling Hammond, the â€Å"kill drill† system of MCQS as testing strategy has discouraged students from carrying out research analysis and experimental work which is a better measure of their knowledge and skill. NCLBs initiative according to both the essays, to label or point out more and more schools as â€Å"failing† from Darling Hammond’s view is harmful and unfair. She quotes in her essay the words of principal from Florida who points out that the already sidelined â€Å"failing† schools have little or no hope in getting help from the NCLB. NCLB has in its paradigm the system of accounting the student and the teachers for their performance, however Hammond calls this paradigm incomplete. As the state is not accountable for how the teachers and the students perform. NCLB identifies several ways in which it intends to improve the outlook of education in America in the years to come. It points out how â€Å"effective† teachers form the basis of a system that is foolproof. It also highlights in the commission report that the teacher student interaction, the involvement of presents and community members and their relationship is essential in bringing reform. also, the data systems of evaluating performance and keeping track of student grades and scores is vital to improve the foundations already laid down by NCLB. This however cannot be carried out unless the potential leaders in form of responsible and pioneering principals take hold of the systems in school across America. Drling hmmind colors in our minds a different image of the progress of NCLB one that is stagnant and not good enough. The lack of successful transfer of low performance students from private to public schools has only encouraged more drop outs, as due to lack of proper schooling